Little Known Works of Famous Authors

The History of the P.C. (Personal Computer)

Martha Russ

John Mauchly and Presper Eckert was the first to design the computer. They are from the University of Pennsylvania. The name of it was ENIAC, which stood for Electronic Numerical Intergrator and Computer. It filled 40 ,nine feet tall cabinets and had about 18,000 vacuum tubes with miles of wiring this was designed for a weapon of war. It could calculate trajectories for WWII artillery guns but because of it operating under the army secrecy it was little known to the public only by computing circles, it was eventually buried in history under controversy, jealousy, and lawsuits. ENIAC, Eckert, and Mauchly were forgotten. They also discovered the first Computer Company, but neither found fame nor fortune because both men were poor businessmen and lousy marketers. The team that built the first computer ate, slept, and lived with it. They ran into so many problems from how to combine vacuum tubes together so they could count numbers without making mistakes all the way down to how they could make supplies last. Finally in 1946 this thing was completed

In 1947 an invention was made to replace the values in ENIAC with a better part called the transistor. But the computer was still big and bulky and only used mainly in Universities and governments. This started a new section of computers, which began, in the late 1950 and early 1960s

In 1943 IBM helped Harvard University design a computer. It was designed to crack the German coding system that was where IBM got their start for computers.

In 1958 Jack St. Claire invented the microchip and between him and IBM they furthered the integrated circuit and made itpossible for the computers to enter small businesses. These computers were called minicomputers.

In 1971, Intel produced the first microprocessor with a small chip that could do much of the computers processing; it also involved a chip called a ram. Which both of these together stood for Kilobits of memory on a single chip thus allowing the micro to be even faster and better than ever before. This invention was so great that it allowed bigger computers to be even faster and more powerful like Supercomputers. It also made available for the first personal computer called the MITS Altair that was released in 1974 , and  then soon to follow was the Apple I & II, Commodore PET, and the IBM PC that was released in 1981. After that was the internet.

                            The first stages of the internet started in 1969 by the US Department of Defense it was called the ARPANET.People could put their ideas on paper and let other ones read it they could also comment on it. This was called Request for Comments in the late 1970 universities and non-military people were allowed to use it and by 1972 it had expanded into another stage called International connections but it was still just another way for computers to talk to each other. It was’nt until 1989 when Tim Berners-Lee wanted a way to share information with other Physicist about their research and he invented the World Wide Web but you could only do text. Graphics with a browser came after that and was called NCSA Mosaics.

                        Still the only computers that could connect were Universities and other big organizations that could afford cable between each other to carry the data.

In 1993 the graphical interface opened up the Internet and allowed people to get on the Internet with their computers using an Internet provider. This allowed you to get on the net and to access what we call e-mail which allows you to communicate with others without using the US postal service and in a matter of seconds have a reply.

But during those times no one stopped to think what the millennium would be like. As our world has became revolved around them. We ponder about what is ahead for us. Will the New Year come in with an ease or will there be one problem after the other. Will we have lights, water, phones, etc? Only January 1st 2000 will tell.

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